Levels of metals and elements in tissues of fish species in the Kızılırmak River (Turkey) and assessment of health risks and nutritional benefits
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CitationVarol, M., Kaçar, E., Sünbül, M. R., & Islam, A. R. M. T. (2022). Levels of metals and elements in tissues of fish species in the Kızılırmak River (Turkey) and assessment of health risks and nutritional benefits. Environmental Research, 214, 113791.
Although the Kızılırmak River, the longest river in Turkey, is home to many fish species, there are a few studies reporting metal levels in fish in the river. The contents of 17 metals and elements (MEs) in various tissues of three fish species and surface water from the river were investigated. Significant differences in the ME levels among tissues were recorded, and the highest levels of most MEs were recorded in the gills and liver. The results revealed that correlations between MEs in tissues and fish size were not clear and consistent. Among the MEs, P (6058–109489) and Zn (933–47556) had the highest bioconcentration factor values. The levels of As and Cd in the river water exceeded water quality criteria. Health risk assessment methods (Target Hazard Quotient, Estimated Daily Intake and Lifetime Carcinogenic Risk) indicated that consumption of the studied fish species is safe. It was estimated that a weekly consumption of 490 g of C. gibelio, or 350 g of C. carpio or 280 g of T. tinca would not cause any health risks. Furthermore, it was found that fish species would provide significant benefits in terms of intake of nutrients such as P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. These findings revealed that nutritional benefits from consumption of fish species outweigh the health risks posed by metals in fish.